Monkeypox Resources for Clinical Research Sites and the Community

HANC maintains and updates this page focused on information about the 2022 Monkeypox outbreak and its intersection with the HIV pandemic.

Monkeypox Terminology and Guidelines

Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe. With the eradication of smallpox in 1980 and subsequent cessation of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox has emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus for public health. Monkeypox primarily occurs in central and west Africa, often in proximity to tropical rainforests, and has been increasingly appearing in urban areas. Animal hosts include a range of rodents and non-human primates. Source: WHO

2022 Monkeypox Outbreak

Since early May 2022, cases of monkeypox have been reported from countries where the disease is not endemic, and continue to be reported in several endemic countries. Most confirmed cases with travel history reported travel to countries in Europe and North America, rather than West or Central Africa where the monkeypox virus is endemic. This is the first time that many monkeypox cases and clusters have been reported concurrently in non-endemic and endemic countries in widely disparate geographical areas. Most reported cases so far have been identified through sexual health or other health services in primary or secondary health-care facilities and have involved mainly, but not exclusively, men who have sex with men. Source: WHO

2022 U.S. Map & Case Counts

WHO Director-General declares the ongoing monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern

Signs & Symptoms

Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus is part of the same family of viruses as smallpox. Monkeypox symptoms are similar to smallpox symptoms, but milder; and monkeypox is rarely fatal. Monkeypox is not related to chickenpox. Symptoms of monkeypox can include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches and backache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Chills
  • Exhaustion
  • A rash that can look like pimples or blisters that appears on the face, inside the mouth, and on other parts of the body, like the hands, feet, chest, genitals, or anus.

The rash goes through different stages before healing completely. The illness typically lasts 2-4 weeks. Sometimes, people get a rash first, followed by other symptoms. Others only experience a rash. Source: CDC

Vaccines

NIAID provided significant support in the development of the JYNNEOS™ (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) vaccine to prevent monkeypox and smallpox. The vaccine was developed for people with weakened immune systems who were at risk for severe side effects from the existing smallpox vaccines. The JYNNEOS vaccine is an attenuated (weakened) live virus vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2019 for individuals at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection. Source: NIAID

Treatment

Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for monkeypox virus infection. However, there are antiviral medications that can be used to treat smallpox and other conditions that may help patients with monkeypox infection. NIAID supported the development of two of these smallpox treatments—tecovirimat or ST-246 (TPOXX), made by SIGA Technologies, New York, and brincidofovir (Tembexa), manufactured by Chimerix, based in Durham, N.C. NIAID is screening other novel compounds to find potential antiviral candidates to treat monkeypox and is working to conduct larger clinical testing of tecovirimat specifically to treat patients with monkeypox virus disease. Source: NIAID

Note: Monkeypox is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.

Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Access the latest public health information from the CDC and explore resources for health professionals and communication resources, including Reducing Stigma in Communication and Community Engagement.

National Institutes of Health

The U.S. National Institutes of Health's (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) played a key role in the development of the current vaccine and antiviral treatments for monkeypox. Learn more about the latest research, testing, treatments & vaccines for monkeypox.

World Health Organization

View the latest in public advice and technical guidance from the World Health Organization. The public site contains situation reports, global trends, fact sheets, FAQs, and the Research & Development blueprint for monkeypox. 

Monkeypox & HIV

Monkeypox and HIV FAQ

The CDC answers frequently asked questions for people with HIV, their likelihood of acquiring monkeypox, and recommended treatment, vaccines, and preventive actions to take.

Clinical Considerations for People with HIV

This information is intended for healthcare professionals providing care for people with HIV and provides considerations for prevention and treatment of monkeypox virus infection.

Multimedia Resources

View print, graphic, and video resources to support monkeypox communication with partners and community members. 

Partners can help by providing monkeypox information to different communities and various channels. Be careful to avoid marginalizing groups who may be at increased risk for monkeypox. Keep messages fact-based to help prevent stigmatizing populations most affected. Reference the CDC's guidelines for Reducing Stigma in Monkeypox Communication and Community Engagement

Expand All
Graphic Resources (posters, infographics)
Printable Factsheets
Toolkits

Monkeypox outbreak: Resource toolkit for event organisers Source: ECDC
This toolkit, jointly created by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), provides event organisers with customisable tools on monkeypox for mass gatherings.

Training Resources

The HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks have mobilized in response to the global pandemic and provided key support for COVID-19 vaccine and therapeutic research efforts. Studies and COVID-19 research collaborations in which the HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks are involved are listed below.