After release from incarceration, former female inmates face considerable stressors, which may influence drug use and other risk behaviors that increase risk for HIV infection. Involvement in a committed partnership may protect women against re-entry stressors that may lead to risky behaviors. This study measured the association between time since release from incarceration (1-6 months ago, and >6 months ago versus never incarcerated) and HIV risk behaviors and evaluated whether these associations differed by involvement in a committed partnership. Women released within the past 6 months were significantly more likely to have smoked crack cocaine, used injection drugs and engaged in transactional sex in the past month compared to never-incarcerated women and women released more distally. Stratified analyses indicated that incarceration within the past 6 months was associated with crack cocaine smoking, injection drug use and transactional sex among women without a committed partner yet unassociated with these risk behaviors among those with a committed partner.