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Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adolescents living with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis.


Kim SH, Gerver SM, Fidler S, Ward H.

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Adolescent and young adult (AYA) populations (12-24 years) represent over 40% of new HIV infections globally. Adolescence is sometimes characterized by high-risk sexual behaviour and a lack of engagement with healthcare services that can affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite adherence to ART being critical in controlling viral replication, maintaining health and reducing onward viral transmission, there are limited data on ART adherence amongst AYA globally. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting adherence to ART for AYA living with HIV.


Searches included Embase, Medline and PsychINFO databases up to 14 August 2013. Eligible studies defined adequate adherence as at least 85% on self-report or undetectable blood plasma virus levels. A random effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression.


We identified 50 eligible articles reporting data from 53 countries and 10 725 patients. Using a pooled analysis of all eligible studies, 62.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57.1-67.6; I : 97.2%] of the AYA population were adherent to therapy. The lowest average ART adherence was in North America [53% (95% CI 46-59; I : 91%)], Europe [62% (95% CI 51-73; I : 97%)] and South America [63% (95% CI 47-77; I : 85%] and, with higher levels in Africa [84% (95% CI 79-89; I : 93%)] and Asia [84% (95% CI 77-91; I : 0%].


Review of published literature from Africa and Asia indicate more than 70% HIV-positive AYA populations receiving ART are adherent to therapy and lower rates in Europe and North America at 50-60%. The global discrepancy is probably multifactorial reflecting differences between focused and generalised epidemics, access to healthcare and funding.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.




Adherence; Adolescents/Youth; Asian Pacific Islander; Behavior; Black; Latino/Latina


Created at 8/1/2014 11:24 AM by Davis, Gregory P
Last modified at 8/1/2014 11:24 AM by Davis, Gregory P