Coronary atherosclerosis is a complex entity with behavioral, genetic and environmental antecedents. Most risk factors for coronary heart disease have a behavioral component. These include tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and physical inactivity. The role of monetary incentives to encourage healthful behaviors related to the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease has received little attention. In this review, the potential role of monetary incentives to prevent or treat coronary heart disease is discussed. In particular, the potential role of providing incentives for patients to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a multi-risk intervention, is highlighted.