Behavioral and epidemiological studies report high risk for HIV among MSM couples. Over the last decade, studies have examined relationship dynamics associated with sexual risk for HIV. It is important to examine the impact this research has had on HIV prevention and what is still needed. We conducted a review of the literature focusing on relationship dynamics associated with sexual risk for HIV among MSM couples. Procedures used for this review were guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses established to provide a framework for collecting, reviewing and reporting studies systematically (Mohler et al. in Ann Intern Med 151(4):264-269, 2009). We found that positive relationship dynamics are associated with less risk with partners outside the relationship, but were associated with greater odds of unprotected anal intercourse with primary partners. We also discuss other factors including sexual agreements about outside partners and make recommendations for next steps in HIV prevention research among MSM couples.